All dumps in Amazonas were to have been replaced by landfills since 2014, but the reality is different
Manaus - Since 2014, all dumps in Amazonas were to have been replaced by landfills. This was the period established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS) law. After five years, nothing has changed. Certification can be done by anyone. As did the advisor to the Amazonas State Court of Accounts (TCE-AM), Júlio Pinheiro. According to the agency's survey, Amazonas has 71 open-air dumps. “Open pit dumps are a public, economic and environmental health issue. It's not just garbage, ”says Júlio Pinheiro, in an interview with Portal EM TEMPO this Wednesday (28).
It is worth remembering that Amazonas is also the largest generator of solid urban waste (MSW) in the North Region
. According to data from the Geodiversity, Water Resources, Mines, Gas, Energy and Sanitation Commission of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Amazonas (Aleam), released in July this year. The average garbage production in the State is 1.14 kg / inhabitant / day, surpassing the national average of 0.95 kg / inhabitant / day.
Júlio Pinheiro coordinates the TCE / AM environmental projects and is monitoring the dumps, looking for solutions to this urban problem. "Making preventive environmental control is extremely important for the legislation to be complied with", he says.
The TCE-AM advisor made a technical visit to the Manaus Urban Solid Waste Landfill, at kilometer 19 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara), last Thursday (22). The site receives more than 2,500 tons of garbage daily and has reached its maximum capacity.
According to the advisor, in 2010, dozens of problems were detected by the Department of Environmental Engineering (Deamb) and the Department of Operational Audit (Deaop), such as the overflow of decantation ponds with leachate flow into the matrinxã stream. , which today is practically dead.
Since 2010, the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), Law No. 12,305 / 10, has been in force in Brazil, which seeks to organize the way in which the country deals with waste and to demand transparency from the public and private sectors in the management of its waste.
Despite this, in the rest of the country the data is even greater. According to the Brazilian Association of Public Cleaning and Special Waste Companies (Abrelpe), the country has about 3 thousand open dumps and the production of waste increased by 28%.
Abrelpe also states that Brazil has losses between R $ 8 billion to R $ 10 billion per year with failures in recycling waste.
The geographer, environmentalist and director of WCS Brasil, a Brazilian non-profit organization dedicated to the conservation of the Amazon regions, Carlos Durigan says that dumps are a serious problem.
“Basically, we have an increasing production of solid waste in the urban perimeter, contaminating the environment. And the landfill we have has no more space ”, he says.
Carlo explains that each type of waste brings harm to the environment. Organic waste, for example, may seem the most harmless, however, it has a highly contaminating biochemical compound that can affect water sources and contaminate groundwater.
Hospital materials, on the other hand, offer contaminants that can transmit chemical diseases. Industrial waste consists of chemicals of various kinds that contaminate and are harmful to the health of people and animals. Other materials such as plastic, glass and metals form a large mass of waste that takes centuries to be degraded.
The technical director of the Amazonas Environmental Protection Institute (Ipaam), Maria do Carmo, points out other risks, such as birds that fly over landfills and can cause air accidents. "In addition, collectors and children may enter, who end up being contaminated, because the dump is a place where you put waste in a disorderly manner," he says.
Emergence of dumps is linked to lack of resources and education
Research carried out by the National Union of Urban Cleaning Companies (Selurb) shows that the emergence of landfills is linked to municipalities with greater dependence on intergovernmental resource transfers, reduced population density, lower per capita investment in urban cleaning, and with low educational levels.
According to the study, the economic issue has the greatest impact on results. Cities with landfills have, on average, 90.8% financial dependence on transfers from state and federal governments, while those that properly dispose of waste to landfills have a lower dependence, 79.1%, on average.
In 2018, the Manaus Public Cleaning System (Semulsp) collected 11,386 tons of recyclable materials. The selective collection system in Manaus covers 13 neighborhoods in the city, serving an estimated population of 397,844 inhabitants, a coverage rate of 18.5% in relation to the total population of the city.
The collection collects materials such as paper, plastic, cardboard, pet bottles, tetra-pack boxes, cans, magazines and newspapers. The collected material goes directly to the more than 200 waste pickers, distributed in 20 entities (among centers and associations), which have a registration with Semulsp.